Latest Posts

Normal Flora of the Human body

18 December 2021 Normal Flora of the human body is the various bacteria and fungi that are permanent residents of certain body sites. Microorganisms that live on another living organism (human or animal) or inanimate objects without causing any harm are called normal flora. The term Human Microbiome is often used to describe the normal flora of … Continue reading Normal Flora of the Human body


18 December 2021 Itch Mite Overview Scabies is a highly irritant contagious skin infestation caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei or Itch Mite. The female Itch Mite burrows tunnels in the outer layer of skin feeds and lays eggs, which causes intense itching with characteristic erythematous papular skin rash having characteristic distribution on hands and … Continue reading Scabies

Vector-Borne Diseases

18 December 2021 A vector is any agent usually arthropods that carry and transmits an infectious agent (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths) into another living organism. Many of these vectors are bloodsucking insects, which ingest disease-producing microorganisms during a blood meal from an infected host (human or animal) and later transmit it into a new … Continue reading Vector-Borne Diseases


November 15, 2021 Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and they outnumber all the others put together. There are billions of Viruses. They infect all life forms, animals, plants, fungi, and even bacteria and Archaea. The viruses that infect plants are harmless to animals and most viruses that infect other animals are … Continue reading Viruses

Sterilization and Disinfection

November 13, 2021 Microorganisms are found everywhere. Many of them spoil food and cause diseases, So it is necessary to kill them or inhibit their growth to minimize their destructive effects. Disinfection and sterilization are needed in healthcare and hospitals, during surgical procedures, in microbiology, in the food industry, and in public health services such … Continue reading Sterilization and Disinfection

DPT Vaccines (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)

November 13,2021 DTP vaccine was licensed in 1949 and has been widely used since then. It virtually eliminated Diphtheria and Tetanus and has greatly reduced the number of pertussis cases. DPT vaccine is a combination vaccine that provides protection against three infectious diseases, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Whooping cough), and Tetanus. The vaccine has Diphtheria and Tetanus … Continue reading DPT Vaccines (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus)

Nomenclature of Drugs

November 12, 2021 A drug is defined as a chemical substance of known structure, which when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect. Drug may be a synthetic chemical, chemical obtained from plants or animals, or a product of genetic engineering. Medicine is a chemical preparation, which usually contains one or more drugs … Continue reading Nomenclature of Drugs

Generic Medicines and Biosimilars

OCTOBER 30, 2021 A generic medicine is a pharmaceutical drug that contains the same chemical substance as its brand-name counterpart but it may differ in some characteristics such as manufacturing process, formulations, excipients, color, taste, and packaging. They are usually subject to government regulation in the countries in which they are used and have to … Continue reading Generic Medicines and Biosimilars

Analogs of Insulin

Native or regular insulin molecules self-associate as hexamers in an aqueous solution at a neutral PH and this aggregation slows absorption following subcutaneous injection. The onset of action is slow 30-60 minutes, long duration of the peak of 2-4 hours so it can cause postprandial hyperglycemia and late hypoglycemia.


October 30, 2021 Types of Insulins Insulin is a polypeptide hormone made up of 51 amino acids. It is a key player in the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Insulin is called a hormone of abundance. It is secreted after a meal when there is an abundance of nutrients, especially carbohydrates. It organizes … Continue reading Insulin